Sivu 1, 1:sta

Why Does Time Fly?

ViestiLähetetty: 23.02.2008 20:12
Kirjoittaja Antti Roine
$this->bbcode_attachment('1', 'Cobe-Eridanus.jpg')
Today many scientists believe in the Big Bang and time travel because nobody wants to question the primary assumptions, i.e. it is much easier to repair the old models using new parameters, dimensions, strings and iron wire. However, if the primary assumptions are wrong then it is very difficult to find the correct answers to many basic questions, for example:

1. Why is the speed of light relatively constant?

2. Why do chemists talk about the rate and speed of processes but physicists talk about time dilatation, time coordinate system changes and time travel?

3. Why is the difference between experimental observations and a theoretical model normally referred to as an "error" but in cosmology, it is called "dark energy”?

4. Why do we assume that universe is just expanding after "Big Bang"? We do not need fictional "dark energy" if we assume that the whole universe is rotating - like electrons, planets and galaxies does.

5. Why do we assume that gravity is an inter-material pulling force?

6. How two atoms at the opposite side of the universe can attract each other’s – in spite of the huge distances? Pulling graviton particle with negative impulse, mass, speed and energy sounds as an absurd explanation.

7. Why antimatter and matter did not destroy each others at the begining of Big Bang?

8. Our Earth moves around the Sun (30 km/sec) and Sun moves around the Milky Way (220 km/sec). Why our Local Group with 50 galaxies or more moves at a speed of 600 - 700 km/s relative to the whole universe? The fictional Great Attractor is not a convincing explanation with vague location and nature.

9. Why observed redshift values of distant objects lead to recession speeds up to speed of light or even higher?

10. Einstein’s mathematical relativity theory assumes that speed of gravity is the same as speed of light. If this is true, why gravity behaves instantly but sunlight creates aberration shift due to finite speed of light?

11. According to the mainstream Big Bang theory our universe should be quite uniform without any specific center. Why experimental observations do not agree with this conclusion? Our universe has actually extremely complicated but still organized structure with great clusters of galaxies, immense superclusters, huge voids, Great Wall, etc.

We think that gravity pulls a pencil down to the floor if we drop it. However, we may find new routes and explanations if we have the courage to assume that gravity pushes the pencil down to the floor. This simple reassessment will lead to very different and exciting conclusions compared to the traditional way of thinking; but of course, the ultimate truth will be found by comparing and testing different assumptions with experimental observations. Science is based on good assumptions, experimental observations and wise conclusions.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'What is time made of?')

Time may be regarded either as a simple phenomenon or as a great mystery, depending on our point of view. It is easy to understand what the other physical or chemical base units represent, however, we may ask what does time measure and what is time made of?

We can measure length using the metric gauge and time using the clock. However, the clock measures the oscillation speed of quartz crystal, the sundial measures the rotation speed of the earth and the calendar measures the orbital speed of the earth around the sun. Ie. clocks do not measure time but they measure speed and movement.

Time exists because the world is changing all the time. Time stops when all motion stops. However, without motion our world would die because the orbital motion of the celestial spheres and the atomic particles prevents the collapse of our world, i.e. time is made from the motion of our universe. Time is a relative phenomenon, because the speed of motion depends on the comparison point and because the speed of all processes depends on the local prevailing conditions, such as temperature, speed, gravity, etc.

In this respect time is not a base unit but a derived mathematical unit, which is created from motion and speed. Time is a very practical and handy tool, which makes it possible to arrange and organize events and activities in a reasonable order. However, time is not the fourth dimension, where we can freely move as we can in the other three dimensions. The other base units are also based on motion: electric current is the motion of electrons, light intensity is the motion of photons, temperature is the oscillation of atoms and mass is the inertia of material when it is moved. Length gives the distance of the motion and the amount of material gives the number of moving particles.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Time Machine')

The time machine has already been invented, however, it only works forwards. Nearly all of us have such an appliance in our home. We can easily test it by leaving a tomato for two weeks on the table and the other one in the fridge. Time passes more slowly in the fridge because the tomato that was in the fridge seems to be younger than the one on the table, because the low temperature slows down the chemical reactions.

A similar ILLUSION may be created using two accurate clocks. One clock is placed on a plane and the other one on the ground. When the plane comes back, the clock on the plane seems to have lost some time. The substantial movement of the plane in the gravitational field slows down physical processes. This phenomenon is based on process and reaction kinetics and not on a variation in time or exchange of time-space coordinate system, because time is purely a mathematical creation, which arises from real physical or spiritual motion.

All internal motion and “time” stops at the speed of light. Light proceeds using a waveform in the pervasive gravitational energy field at a relatively constant speed, like sound in the air. A homogenous energy field must exist because the speed of light does not depend on the light source speed, neither does it depend on the energy level of the radiation. The old “ether” ocean cannot exist because a material medium would gradually slow down the speed of the photons, electrons and celestial spheres and such an effect has not been observed. However, even the emptiest cubic meter in the universe contains some particles (atoms, protons, photons, etc.), which may interact with the gravity-energy field and radiation to some extent.

The celestial spheres, i.e. material, create holes or valleys in the gravity field. The pressure of gravitation compresses the material and forces the atomic particles to slow down, which will also slow down “time”. The pressure of gravitation, high temperature and nuclear reactions transform the material into energy in the sun. A black hole, extreme gravity and low temperature will transform this energy back into material, which may be released with other forms of energy, for example, in black hole collisions. There is a huge amount of dark material in space that is difficult to see because it does not emit light or other waveforms of energy, but it may be observed indirectly by measuring orbital speeds of the spheres.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Gravity Fills Space')

Gravity-energy fills space and only material makes it visible; material is not the source of gravity, but it is the destination. Gravitation is not an inter-material pulling force; rather it is a propulsive force of space that pushes material together. It is very difficult to imagine an inter-material pulling force, which would arise from one individual atom and would attract an other atom at the opposite side of the universe. The all-round gravity ocean feels much more logical explanation for the force which affects within huge distances. Any size of material particles speeds up at exactly the same rate within this gravity flow. The mass of material increases with speed because the material particles interacts with the gravity field.

The old Newtonian laws of gravity work nicely in local conditions because they are blind to the direction of the gravity field. We may also remember that an electric current flows in the opposite direction to what was originally assumed, but the basic equations still work. However, on a large scale, Newton and Einstein formulas do not agree with experimental observations. For example, the observed expansion speed of the universe is much larger than the calculated one. This error is so huge that some 73% of fictional “dark energy” is needed to compensate this apparent error. An-other disagreement may be found between the calculated and observed Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals.

It is the pressure of the gravitation field with rotation of the whole universe that expands the universe, not some mystic dark energy. Gravitation turns into heat and other energy forms when it hits matter, and this creates the 3 Kelvin cosmic background radiation glow, heats celestial spheres and has many other effects. Without this extra energy source the black body radiation would cool down the cosmic background radiation in a “few” years down to 0 Kelvin, because the black horizon at the edge of the universe is huge. The gravity field may also be one reason why a lot of energy is needed to reach the absolute zero temperature in the laboratory. Different forms of gravity-energy ocean may even be the primary fuel of the universe, which feeds energy to the celestial systems.

The heat effect of the gravity-energy field is difficult to measure with a calorimeter because this effect is smaller than the accuracy of a standard calorimeter and because we cannot insert the whole earth into a calorimeter. However, on a large scale the heat effect of the gravity field and nuclear reactions are palpable. This heat effect becomes evident some kilometers under our feet and also inside the other celestial spheres, making their core hot. Energy and material never disappear, they are only transformed; this is a basic fact that we can rely upon.

Latest experimental measurements show that the temperatures of the most distant spheres, like Pluto and Charon, are quite high. There may be even liquid water under the surface of Charon. This may be explained by nuclear reactions but also by heating effect of the gravity field.

According to the latest estimates universe containts only 4% of visible material, 23% dark matter and 73% of dark energy. The large amount of dark energy is a logical consequence of the pervasive gravity-energy field which fills the space.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Speed of Gravity')

$this->bbcode_attachment('0', 'Stellar-Aberration-Light.jpg')
Mainstream cosmology assumes that speed of gravity is the same as speed of light. This conclusion is based on Einstein’s relativity theory. Lot of effort has also been spent to find the gravitons, ie. hypothetical elementary particles which create the gravitation. However, many experimental observations do not agree with these basic assumptions.

Stellar aberration was discovered already in 1725 by James Bradley, who found location of the stars to vary some 41 arcsec within the year. The finite speed of light and Earth orbital motion around the Sun was found to create this aberration. The star light seems to arrive from the direction slightly ahead of the true location of the star. This direction may be calculated as a resultant of the light speed and Earth orbital velocity vectors. The aberration angle Alpha may be calculated from these vectors using formulas:

Stellar Aberration:
Alpha = arctan(29.783 km/s / 299792 km/s) = 20.5 arcsec

Galactic Aberration (Secular Aberration):
Alpha = arctan(220 km/s / 299792 km/s) = 151 arcsec

Universal Aberration:
Alpha = arctan(600 km/s / 299792 km/s) = 413 arcsec

The apparent positions of the stars are shifted in the direction of the Earth's motion. The photons behave like raindrops which hit the windscreen of the car. They seem to arrive straight from ahead, although they drop down from the sky above.

The sunlight behaves exactly in the same manner, it seems to arrive from direction slightly ahead of the real Sun location. However, the gravity behaves in a different manner, it affects the Earth instantly, straight from the real location of the Sun. Many other differences have also been observed like:

- The orbits of the celestial spheres are not stable if some retarded gravity delay is assumed to exist.
- Sun and Moon visual and gravitational eclipse do not coincide.
- Binary pulsars orbits are based on instant gravity.
- Gravity can "escape" from the black holes.

The logical conclusion is that gravity cannot be made of particles and/or the speed of gravity must be much faster than speed of the light. Speed of gravity might be estimated, for example, by accurate measurements of the angle between the Sun gravity and sunlight vectors.

Einstein’s mathematical relativity theory explains the action of the gravity by the curvature of the space-time coordinate system. However, this is not a valid physical explanation, if the time exist only in the mathematical models and it has not a real physical counterpart. Mathematical pride and statistical egotism may prevent us to see the physical and spiritual reality of our world.

The gravity field must be homogeneous, because quantum based gravity field would make images of the distant high redshift objects fuzzy due to scattering with the photon and graviton particles. However, they appear as clear and sharp as the low redshift objects.

The gravity-energy field is difficult to observe experimentally because it seems to be homogeneous unlike the electromagnetic energy, which is made of definite energy particles like photons. This is the most logical and simple explanation why graviton particles have not been found despite of huge experimental efforts.

Gravity density is larger in the “empty” space than on the surface of the large celestial bodies, because matter consumes gravity-energy. This creates the gravity-energy flow straight into the suns, planets and other spheres. The gravity-energy flow into the sun may be one explanation for the observed high plasma temperatures over the sun surface, the internal nuclear reactions inside the sun cannot create these temperatures.

Actually the speed of the gravity flow must be extremely high because the acceleration of gravity does not depend on the starting speed of the falling objects and because the delay of the gravity field has not yet been observed. The accelerating gravity flow near the massive celestial objects bends the light, just like the optical lens, this effect has been experimentally observed. The speed of gravity flow into the black hole must be much higher than the speed of light because the light photon cannot proceed against this extremely fast headwind.

However, according to the latest observations nearby galaxies gravity interactions are much smaller than expected. Actually they seem to cruise and pass each other's with quite small intergalactical pulling force effects, like the ships in ocean. This means that gravity flow must have some speed limit, which creates the delays within intergalactic distances.

Gravity energy is flowing into galaxies like swirling water into drain wells on the streets. Globular star clusters and solar systems are spinning around the center of the galaxies like autumn leaves in the whirpool. In the same way the gravity energy flow creates gradually the elliptical and spiral vortex forms into young globular galaxies.

Gravity flow pushes the material objects downward because the gravity-energy density is smaller near the earth than up in the sky, just vice versa than traditionally believed. The material objects move in the space without “friction” because the gravity pressure at each side of the object is the same in the “empty” space, i.e. gravity gradient is missing in weightless environment.

The speed of gravity is far from constant; the speed depends mainly on the nearby material objects. The speed is high because there is nothing else, which can brake or slow down the speed than the “viscosity” of the gravity field itself. According to the experimental measurements the speed of light seems to be quite constant. For example, Michelson-Morley (1887) or Hils and Hall (1990) did not found any differences in their experimental measurements. If this is true then the light cannot escape from the black hole because light bends backward due to the gravity-energy flow.

It is also possible that the light speed differences have not yet been found because the gravity speed differences within the experimental apparatus have been too small or the vertical vs. horizontal speed of light comparison has not been made. If this is true then the gravity headwind will slow down the speed of light because the photon particles interacts slightly with the accelerating gravity field like the material particles does. However, much more experiments are needed to verify the real situation.

The space or gravity field must have some kind of buffer effect because the gravity waves has not yet been detected in spite of the huge explosions which have been observed in the nearby galaxies and in the Milky Way. Ie. the space or gravity-energy field must be elastic and viscose in some extent. It seems that we are extremely lucky also in this respect, because violent gravity waves could cause lot of damage on the earth.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Center of the Universe')

$this->bbcode_attachment('2', 'Eridanus_Void.jpg')
Center of the Universe has no meaning in the context of today's cosmology, based on the general relativity. However, some errors may exist in the basic assumptions, because so many mysterious explanations are needed - like the Great Attractor or "Dark Energy".

According to the latest observations the universe looks like the foam on beer. The visible galaxies and material are located on the surfaces and edges of the individual bubbles of this cellular foam. Everything is rotating in orbits in our universe; electrons, planets, galaxies, etc. It is very probable that the whole universe is also rotating around some huge black holes, which may look like a huge dark galaxy. In other words, all galaxies are rotating around the same massive gravity wells, which may be the primary source and destination point of the gravity-energy flow.

If the gravity flow has destination points then it should also have source points. The secondary source points may be located in the middle of the cellular foam bubbles of space. From this location the linear gravity wind blows matter onto the bubble surfaces. Usually all the energy and matter circulate in the universe, therefore the primary source of gravity could be located near the center of the universe; and huge black holes may transmit gravity-energy back to the universe using some primordial gravity energy form. This primary pure energy form cannot react with the material as the gravity-energy does, because this interaction would mix up the celestial systems when this primordial gravity energy flows out from the center to the borders of our Universe.

If these exceptional but still logical assumptions are correct, then the center of our universe may be found from the midpoint of the orbital movement of all the galaxies. This orbital movement of the galaxies is difficult to verify because long time observations are needed due to the huge distances, but even now it seems that the galaxies move like a string of pearls within the universe. Some galaxy layers may even revolve around the center of the Universe in the opposite directions but still around the same focal point, this may also cause some confusion. The midpoints of our solar system and the Milky Way are much easier and faster to find out by observing the orbital movement of planets and suns.

The rotation of the whole universe is more logical explanation for the expansion of the universe than the "Dark Energy". "Centrifugal force" keeps the solar system in balance with pushing gravity, these same forces operate also in much larger scale. However, the rotation of the universe is more difficult to observe than rotation of the solar system because we have no fixed reference points outside our universe like stars. Maybe the most obvious evidence of this orbital rotation is the fictitious "Dark Energy".

Our Earth moves around the Sun (30 km/sec) and Sun moves around the Milky Way (220 km/sec). Speed of the Earth relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is some 400 km/s. The Milky Way belongs to our Local Group of Galaxies with some 50 other members. Why our Local Group moves at a speed of about 600 km/s relative to the whole universe? The fictional Great Attractor is not a convincing explanation with vague location and nature. The Great Attractor with more than 100000 galaxies has been estimated to locate 250 million light years from the Milky Way, in the direction of the Hydra and Centaurus constellation, however, no one has yet seen it.

Huge empty void was found from our universe in summer 2007 about distance of 6 - 10 billion light years (bly) away from the earth. The diameter of this void is one billion light years, which is 15000 times more than the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy. The diameter of Milky Way is only 65000 light years. This void locates in Eridanus system near Orion. The latest COBE satellite and some earlier results show that our Earth is moving much faster than estimated from the observed orbital movements.

According to COBE measurements our Earth is moving towards Leo constellation using speed of 400 km per second. The Milky Way is moving towards Crater, the speed is 600 km per second (some older sources talk about Centaurus - Hydra). It is quite a coincidence that the angle between Earth cruising path and Giant Void in Eridanus is 90 degrees! In this mean the Giant Void in Eridanus may be the center of our universe. If this idea can be verified then we do not need the fictional Great Attractor at Crater or Centaurus direction. Ofcourse this is still only a logical guess, but most of the scientific facts have been found by testing logical guesses. Lot of experimental research is, however, needed before we can say that the center of the universe have been found. (This chapter was added at 19 February, 2008).

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Redshift and Tired Light')

One cornerstone of the Big Bang theory is Doppler redshift which increase wave length of the light, when a light source moves away from the observer.

However, many experimentally observed redshift values of distant objects are so large (5.5 - 6.3), that they indicate recession speed which is 96% of the speed of light or even faster, because redshift values up to 20 has been observed. This sounds incredible overspeed even for the distant galaxies and quasars.

The light seems to interact with the gravity. For example, gravity bends light (gravitational lenses). Light also looses energy when it moves away from the massive objects, this is called gravitational redshift. Both these effects have experimentally been verified.

If we assume that the gravity fills the space, then the first conclusion is that the light loose energy and increase wave lenght when photons travel millions of light years through this gravity ocean. The light loose energy exactly in the same way in the gravitational redshift when it travels againts the extremely fast gravity flow. In this mean the observed cosmological redshift is combined effect of the Doppler redshift and photon interactions with the gravity field.

The gravity field must be homogeneous, because quantum based gravity field would make images of the high redshift objects fuzzy due to scattering with the photon and graviton particles. However, they appear as clear and sharp as the low redshift objects. The gravitational redshift phenomenon is linear without any steps, this also supports homogeneous gravity ocean assumption. However, much more experimental data, for example, of the gravitational redshift is still needed, to clarify the real nature of the gravitation.

The 'tired light idea' gives also a nice explanation for the 'Dark Sky Paradox". The sky with billions of stars and galaxies is dark because visible light looses energy and turns invisible infrared one, when it travels millions of light years within the homogeneous gravity ocean.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Fluid Dynamic Model of the Universe')

The gravity-energy-space approach will give a much more realistic and comprehensive understanding of the real universe than the old fictive time-space approach. Even the new string theory has not been able to explain the construction of the universe in spite of huge investments in this theory. A gravity-space standpoint could make it possible to model the movement of tiny celestial spheres in the vast gravity ocean using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software with small modifications.

The earth and moon may be used to verify the necessary basic parameters for the fluid dynamic model of the universe. The gravity flows with high speed towards the spheres, which move slowly in this gravity-energy ocean without friction. The random movement of the pendulum, which has been observed within the solar eclipse, may be due to turbulence of the gravity field. The volume ratio between space and matter is huge; the universe is like a sparse particle suspension. However, the gravity ocean is not exactly the same as the old “ether” because gravity is pure energy but ether was assumed to be made of material. The term “gravity ether” is maybe more illustrative.

The observed expansion of the universe has been decoded to support the Big Bang assumption, but who knows when expansion started and when it will end? The assumption of expansion is based mainly on red shift of the light, however, some other explanations than expansion may cause this experimental observation. The Microsoft share price may increase this year but this does not prove that it will also increase next year. Too often we assume that natural phenomena are linear, because many reactions tend to turn nonlinear, discontinuous and even change their direction when the range will be encreased enough.

On the other hand, the complicated mathematical model of the universe is not valid evidence of the Big Bang if some fictive parameters are needed to agree with experimental observations. Actually anything could be fitted using complicated models with tens of parameters and variables. These kinds of mathematical models tend to give correct answers just because these answers are given to the model in the parameter fitting stage. Of course these complicated models may be useful to silence the skeptics, but they are not valid evidence if they do not agree with experimental observations without fictive parameters.

There always exists the danger that the purely physical scientist may become afflicted with mathematical pride and statistical egotism, not to mention spiritual blindness.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Holy Assumptions')

We still know less than 1% of the physical and chemical truth, so it is not wise to anchor our old assumptions if they do not agree with experimental observations. The amount of our scientific knowledge and data is increasing at exponential rate. Today we know at least 100 times more than some 100 years ago and, in future, after 100 years we probably know at least 100 times more than now. However, the amount of the wisdom does not increase at the same rate if we cannot change our prejudice.

We should keep an open mind in order to go forward in our never-ending exploration. All inventions are based on new ideas and dreams, and they are the main driving force behind science, research and development. It is impossible to invent new ideas if we fear to test the old assumptions and make mistakes. An easy solution is to add new parameters to repair the old models but sometimes the reassessment of the old assumptions may give better results; at least we should have the courage to test some other assumptions than the traditional ones. We should also remember that mathematical models do not command the nature but nature commands the models.

Big Bang theory assumes that the origin and source of the gravity is the matter, however, this has not been experimentally verified, it is only an old traditional belief. So the possibility of the error is 50%, because the source of the gravity could also be the space and the destination may be the matter. In the air plane industry some 0.001% error possibility in the basic assumptions causes extensive risk analyses, however, in the cosmology 50% error possibility closes the ears, eyes and mouths.

The most sophisticated scientific models will fail to reach the correct results if some of the basic assumptions is not valid, regardless of the huge investments on the theory, mathematics and testing. For example, if the car driving control model is developed and valid in Florida then it may fail in Alaska if the model does not take into account one-millimeter ice layer on the road. The global climate models will fail, for example, if the effect of sea currents has not been properly specified. In the same way brilliant cosmological models will fail if the effect of the time and gravity has been misunderstood.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Reversible Reactions')

We cannot make the clock run in reverse or turn an old tomato into a fresh one, because it is impossible to change the direction of physical and chemical reactions, which contain random factors. Usually the chemical and physical reactions have been regarded as reversible. However, this is not the whole truth, because, thermal motion vibrates quarks, protons, electrons, atoms and molecules. Therefore it is impossible to reverse chemical reactions exactly into the original state and location. For example, if we melt and freeze water several times then we can be absolutely sure that the order and location of the molecules in the crystalline ice and water fluid is every time different.

Especially if we take into account that in our world we have some 100 elements taking part with the millions of chemical and physical reactions, then we should understand that the reactions and processes are never completely reversible because of the random factor, which mix the locations. The random factor originating from the thermal motion of atoms is one main reason why all snowflakes, leafs, and trees are different. It is also one cause why the identical twins are not exactly identical.

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Summary')

We do not need to worry about the disturbance of cause and effect because the present time is and was the only existing time. Juice may quickly be changed into wine by changing the speed of the natural processes, but we can travel in time only in our minds, because time is a mathematical and mental illusion but gravity is the real physical thing. The time is not the fourth dimension of the universe but the gravity is, we live in space-gravity university.

However, time is flying because our world is changing all the time; change is the cause and time is the effect. Continuous change is a great thing because the human mind prefers insecurity to boredom. Time flies faster at the point that is moving slower, according to the Theory of Relativity. It is funny that time also flies faster in the human mind as the number of year’s increases and our physical speed decreases.

Antti Roine, January 15 – May 14, 2007

$this->bbcode_size('150', 'Some References')

Aristotle may have been one of the first to assume that time is made from movement.

LeSage gravity (kinetic theory of gravity), published in 1784:

Professor Petr Beckmann proposed replacing the word "Aether" with "Gravity", but he did not believe that "Gravity fills space".
- Beckmann, P. 1987. Einstein Plus Two, Golem Press, Boulder, CO.

Bryan G. Wallace found that the speed of light might not be exactly constant. However, he did not mention that speed might depend on the gravitation field.
- Wallace, B.G. 1969. "Radar Testing of the Relative Velocity of Light in Space," Spectroscopic Letters, 2, 361.
- Wallace, B.G. 1983. Letter to the Editor, Physics Today, 36, 1.

The calculated Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals do not agree with the experimentally observed Doppler shifts. Pioneer 10/11 speeds seem to decrease too much.
- Renshaw, C. 1999. "Explanation of the Anomalous Doppler Observations in Pioneer 10 and 11," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2, 59-63.

Ronald R. Hatch has found disagreements between experimental observations and Einstein theories.
- Hatch, R.R. 1992. Escape from Einstein, Kneat Company, Wilmington, CA.

Häfele-Keating experiment does not measure time dilation; instead they measure the rate of the processes.
- Häfele, J.C. and Keating, R.E. 1972. "Around-the-world Atomic Clock: Measured Relativistic Time Gains," Science, 177, 168-170.

Gravity. Is it really a pulling force?

Some nice draft maps of the universe and the Milky Way:

Marcus Chow: Catching the cosmic wind, Maurizio Consoli

The Casimir effect: a force from nothing:

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

Speed of light:
Aimo Sillanpää, Tähdet ja Avaruus, 1/2008, pages 22 - 23.
- The Magic Telescope results of Mk 501 galaxy

Extragalactic Radio Sources and the WMAP Cold spot:
Lawrence Rudnick

COBE Satellite results:

Speed of Earth and Milky Way (Phys. Rev. Series D, 2003):

Tired Light and Gravitational Redshift:

Great Attractor:

Speed of Gravity:
Astronomy & Space Magazine, August 2005
Amateur Astronomy Magazine, Issue 47
UAI Journal, Vol 12, No 2, October 2005
Why does time fly?
Pourquoi le temps court-il?
Por qué pasa el tiempo?
Miksi aika rientää?